4 most common types of superfluidity phenomena

Learn about the 6 most common types of superfluidity phenomena. From zero-viscosity to quantum turbulence, discover the fascinating properties of superfluids.

4 Most Common Types of Superfluidity Phenomena

Superfluidity is a unique and fascinating phenomenon observed in certain materials when they are cooled to extremely low temperatures. These materials exhibit the ability to flow without any resistance or viscosity, making them perfect conductors of heat and electricity. Scientists have identified several types of superfluidity, each with their own unique properties and characteristics. In this article, we will explore the four most common types of superfluidity.

1. Zero-viscosity superfluidity

Zero-viscosity superfluidity is the most well-known type of superfluidity. It occurs in liquid helium-4, which becomes a superfluid at temperatures below 2.17 Kelvin (-271.98 degrees Celsius). At this temperature, the helium atoms undergo a phase transition, and the liquid becomes a superfluid with zero viscosity, allowing it to flow without any resistance. The zero-viscosity superfluidity is often referred to as the first-order phase transition, and it is characterized by a sudden increase in entropy and a sudden drop in specific heat.

2. Supersolidity

Supersolidity is a type of superfluidity that occurs in solid helium-4. Unlike normal solids, where atoms are arranged in a regular lattice structure, the atoms in solid helium-4 exhibit quantum mechanical behavior, allowing them to move around freely. At extremely low temperatures, the solid helium-4 can become a superfluid, retaining its crystalline structure while also exhibiting the properties of a superfluid. The supersolidity phenomenon was first proposed in the 1970s, but it was not until 2004 that scientists were able to confirm its existence.

3. Polariton superfluidity

Polariton superfluidity occurs in a special type of material called a polariton condensate. Polaritons are hybrid particles that result from the strong coupling between photons and excitons. When a large number of polaritons are brought together at low temperatures, they can form a superfluid. Unlike other types of superfluids, which require cooling to extremely low temperatures, polariton superfluidity can occur at room temperature under certain conditions. Polariton superfluids have the potential to be used in the development of new types of lasers and optical devices.

4. Atomic superfluidity

Atomic superfluidity occurs in ultra-cold atomic gases, which are cooled to temperatures close to absolute zero. At these temperatures, the atoms behave like waves,